Education & Workforce

Degrees Awarded in STEM Field

While STEM graduates aren't the only contributors to PA’s innovation economy, the number of STEM degrees awarded each year serves as a proxy for the labor pool’s interests and its level of skill development and sophistication (Milken 2018 Report).
As businesses grow in PA, they need skilled and well-educated workers who are prepared for the innovation economy. STEM degree programs help equip students with the knowledge and skills they need to enter the workforce and be successful in a tech-driven, global economy. (PA Department of Education).
Note about data:  This table presents data collected from Title IV institutions in the United States. Prior to 2009-10, the data include only Title IV primarily postsecondary institutions.

PA Total

By Race/Ethnicity

While STEM graduates aren't the only contributors to PA’s innovation economy, the number of STEM degrees awarded each year serves as a proxy for the labor pool’s interests and its level of skill development and sophistication (lMilken 2018 Report).
As businesses grow in PA, they need skilled and well-educated workers who are prepared for the innovation economy. STEM degree programs help equip students with the knowledge and skills they need to enter the workforce and be successful in a tech-driven, global economy. (PA Department of Education).
With the conclusion of the 2018-19 school year, nonresident alien students were dramatically overrepresented among STEM graduates, whereas white students were slightly underrepresented and Black or African-American students were dramatically underrepresented.
Note about data: This table presents data collected from Title IV institutions in the United States. Prior to 2009-10, the data include only Title IV primarily postsecondary institutions.

Child Care Access

Without access to affordable, high-quality child care, parents and guardians face barriers to gaining employment and succeeding in the workplace (PA OpenData Portal: Workforce Dashboard - Barriers). The data presented here provides insight into these barriers by reporting the number of children on the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services, Office of Child Development and Early Learning, Child Care Works subsidized child care program, Low Income waiting list.
Source: Pennsylvania Department of Human Services via (PA OpenData Portal: Workforce Dashboard - Barriers

Science & Engineering Workers

While scientists and engineers aren’t the only contributors to the innovation economy, they play a key role in promoting economic growth and competitiveness. The National Science Board as well as a wide range of policymakers and scholars agree that science and engineering workers are a critical component of an innovative economy “because of their high skill level, their creative ideas, and their ability not only to advance basic scientific knowledge but also to transform advances in fundamental knowledge into tangible and useful products and services” (National Science Board).
For a sense of how PA compares to other states: in 2019 the average percent of science and engineers in the workforce across all 50 states was 4.6%. Maryland had the highest percentage of 7.8% and Louisiana the lowest at 2.4%
Note about data: Years without a bar represent years in which data was not available for this particular metric.
 

Net Migration by County

This measure is both a factor for and outcome of a healthy, thriving economy. An inflow of new working-age adults to a region attracts outside companies and enables growing companies to stay. Outsiders bring new skills and ideas and help connect the region to the national and global economy. Research shows cross-regional migration may also drive up local wages. (1) Finally, net positive migration is a measure of a region’s attractiveness regarding amenities, school quality, safety, and a variety of high-quality jobs.
(1)    Zabek, Mike (2019). “Local Ties in Spatial Equilibrium,” Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2019-080. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, https://doi.org/10.17016/FEDS.2019.080.

Foreign Born Population by Metro Area

Immigrants living in Pennsylvania are a key driver of the economy. They make up 7% of the state’s population, but about 10% of the entrepreneurs. They are also over-represented as workers and founders in the science and technology industries. The top countries of origin for Pennsylvania’s foreign-born population are India, Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, and Vietnam. (1)
(1)     “Immigrants in Pennsylvania,” American Immigration Council, August 6, 2020. https://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/research/immigrants-in-pennsylvania.

Cost Burdened Households by County

The federal government defines cost-burdened households as those that pay over 30% of household income to rent or mortgage payments. This is caused by high housing prices, low incomes, or both. This is an indicator of whether citizens are sharing in a region’s economic growth: as home prices rise, wages should rise, too.  While high housing prices can indicate a region’s attractiveness, they can also deter potential new inhabitants from moving in and contributing to the local economy.